An Essay Plan for A Level Sociology paper 7192 (1) using the PEEC method – Point, Explain, Elaborate, Criticise repeat. You should also include an introduction and an evaluative conclusion
- Point – Simply state something Functionalists say about education
- Explain – Explain what is meant by the ‘Function’ of education mentioned previously
- Expand – this could mean giving examples, evidence, or explaining in more depth
- Criticise – criticise with evidence against or limitations
(P1) Secondary Socialisation and Value consensus
- The teaching of norms and values after the family – leading to agreement around these norms and values
- Formal Curriculum – Shared history/ Shared language/ Shared religion
- Team sports – working together shared aim
- Ethnocentric Curriculum
- Sub cultures
- More school types – more diversity, surely = less value consensus?
(P2) Teaching skills for work – economic function
- Diverse subjects,
- Vocationalism and apprenticeships have expanded
- Are apprenticeships useful?
- Tea servers
(P3) Bridge between home and school
- School prepares us for the world outside the family – it acts like a society in miniature
- Particularistic/ Universalistic Standards
- Doesn’t apply to everyone – Home schooling
R(P4) Role Allocation
- Different qualifications sift people into appropriate jobs
- Does this through exams – sifting and sorting
- Meritocracy (since 1944)
- Marxism – not meritocratic – myth of meritocracy,
- Private schools
- Feminism – gender stereotyping and subject choice
Evaluate using other perspectives –
- Marxism – Agrees with Functionalists that school socialises us into shared values, but these values are the values benefit the ruling class (we get taught that inequality is natural and inevitable, we believe in the myth of meritocracy and so end up passively accepting society as it is.
- Feminism – Functionalism ignores the gender divide in school
- Interactionism – Argues Functionalism is too deterministic – it sees individuals as passive, but there is a lot more evidence that pupils are active and aren’t just moulded by the school system
Conclusion – You must point out that this perspective is too optimistic and overgeneralises!