Ernst Troeltsch (1931) used the term ‘church’ to refer to a large, hierarchically organised religious institutions with an inclusive, universal membership, typically with close links to the state.
According to Troeltsch* Churches have about 5 characteristics:
Churches tend to have very large memberships, and inclusive memberships.
Churches tend to claim a monopoly on the truth.
Churches have large, bureaucratic, hierarchical structures
Churches have professional, paid clergy
Churches tend to be closely tied to the state.
Criticisms of the ‘concept’ of the church
Steve Bruce (1996) suggests that the above definition of church may have been true in pre-modern Christian societies, but ever since the Reformation, and especially since the increase of religious pluralism, this type of definition of a ‘church’ no longer applies to organisations which formally call themselves churches in modern societies – organisations such as the Church of England.
There are several examples of ‘churches’ which do not fit the above definition:
The Church of England does not have universal membership.
Many churches today do not claim a monopoly on the truth, they tend to be tolerant of other faiths.
The links between the church and the state are not as strong as they once were.
It seems then, that the only ways in which modern churches resemble Troeltsch’s definition lies in their organisational structure.
Haralambos and Holborn: Sociology Themese and Perspectives
Chapman et al: Sociology AQA A-Level Year 2 Student Book