Applying material from item A and elsewhere analyse two ways in which globalisation has influenced education policies in the United Kingdom in the last 30 years (10)
Globalisation, or the increasing interconnectedness of countries across the globe, creates both challenges and opportunities for the United Kingdom. For example, economic globalisation has resulted in increased opportunities for jobs abroad, but it also means that British graduates now need to compete with foreign workers for these jobs; and increasing migration has resulted in greater multiculturalism in the UK, but, as demonstrated by Brexit, this is also a potentially divisive issue.
Education policy is one mechanism British governments have used to prepare students for a future in a globalising world, and many policies, especially those associated with the New Right and New Labour, can be seen as a response to the challenges of globalisation.
Hooks in the item:
- Economic globalisation – increased opportunities and competition
- Cultural globalisation – migration, multiculturalism and division.
- There is also a strong hint that you might use something from the New Right (/neoliberalism) and something from New Labour.
Point 1 – New Labour’s expansion of Higher Education can be seen as a response to the pressures of the increased competition from abroad resulting from economic globalisation.
Analysis 1 – economic growth in other parts of the world, especially Asia, where students top the international PISA league tables, means that UK workers face increased competition for professional jobs – thus the expansion of higher education means better qualifications for UK workers.
Analysis 2 – this is especially important since globalisation has also meant that most of the unskilled factory jobs have now moved abroad, and increasingly British workers need to be better educated in order to get jobs at all.
Analysis 3 – the expansion of HE has also increased opportunities for the UK – increasingly students come from abroad and pay higher fees than UK students, thus benefiting the UK economy, thus the HE sector itself can be said to be ‘globalised’.
Analysis 4 – however, ironically, poorer UK students are put off by the fees universities now charge, meaning that the globalisation of HE is possibly resulting in more class inequality.
Point 2 – The item also refers to the pressures of increased immigration resulting in more multiculturalism – and British schools have long had multicultural education in response to this.
Development 1 – for example, religious education has long taught about other religions, and increasingly schools and colleges have events such as ‘black history month’ raising awareness of diversity.
Analysis 2 – schools have also introduced compensatory education to help recent immigrants from Eastern Europe, such as extra support for pupils who don’t have English as a first language.
Analysis 3 – however, some policies may be seen as potentially divisive, for example, the prevent agenda in schools seems to target Muslim pupils through ‘categorical suspicion’.
Analysis 4 – There is also doubt that these inclusive policies are working, many people, especially in working class areas, object to the extra resources being spent on minority groups, and given the fact that it is the white working classes who have the lowest achievement, they might have a point.