Neo Marxists argue that cultural hegemony explains why we have a limited media agenda.
Journalists have more freedom than traditional Marxists suggest, and the media agenda is not directly controlled by owners. However, journalists share the world view of the owners and use gatekeeping and agenda setting to keep items which are harmful to elites out of the media agenda and thus voluntarily spread the dominant ideology.
This perspective is also known as the Dominant Ideology, or Hegemonic perspective on the media.
Neo-Marxists emphasize cultural hegemony
Hegemony is where the norms and values of the ruling class are taken as common sense.
According to Neo-Marxists, the reason why we have a limited media agenda is because of cultural hegemony, not because of direct control by wealthy media owners. In other words, cultural factors are more important than economic factors in explaining narrow media content.
Simply put, Journalists have accepted the conservative worldview of the ruling class as common sense, and they share this world view with the ruling class – they thus unconsciously spread the dominant ideology themselves without the need for direct control by the media owners.
Journalists voluntarily spread the dominant ideology
Journalists have the freedom to report as they please, so other factors besides economic control/ ownership determine media content, factors such as the interests of journalists and industry news values.
HOWEVER, the broad agenda of the media is still limited because the journalists share the same world view as the ruling class and the owners (this is known as ‘cultural hegemony’).
This is at least partly because Journalists are themselves mostly white and middle class, with more than 50% of them having gone to private schools. They thus present a conservative/ neo-liberal view of the world on autopilot.
Also, journalists do not want to risk their careers by annoying owners and so are reluctant to publish content which might annoy owners.
Agenda setting and gate keeping
Agenda setting and gatekeeping are the two processes through which journalists limit media content. They are normally used in relation to the selection and presentation of The News.
Gatekeeping = the process of choosing which items are selected for coverage, and others are kept out.
Agenda setting = deciding how media items are going to be framed, for example, who is going to be invited to discuss topics and what kind of questions are going to be asked.
According to neo-Marxists gatekeeping and agenda setting tend to result in issues which are harmful to the elite being kept out of the media, thus reinforcing the dominant ideology.
Examples of agenda setting and gate keeping include:
- Only having two political parties discuss a news item – we rarely hear from the Green Party, for example.
- Focussing on the violence at riots and protests, rather than the issues which are being protested about, or the cause of the riots.
- The news taking the side of the police and the government, rather than hearing from criminals or terrorists.
Criticisms of Neo-Marxism
- Traditional Marxists argue that it underestimates the important of economic factors, for example the power of owners to hire and fire journalists
- As with traditional Marxism, the role of new media may make this perspective less relevant. It is now much harder to maintain the dominant ideology, for example.
- Pluralists point out that this perspective still tends to assume the audience are passive and easily swayed by the dominant ideology. In reality, the audience may be more active and critical.
- Ken Browne (2016) Sociology for AQA Volume 2
- Chapman (2016) Sociology AQQ A-Level Year 2