According to Functionalism, religion acts as a conservative force by reinforcing social norms and promoting social solidarity. This post is A summary of the key ideas of the main Functionalist theorists of religion: Durkheim, Parsons and Malinowski.
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- Studied Totemism among Australian Aboriginal clans in which the sacred totem represented different clans.
- Religious symbols are simultaneously symbols of God and Society, and thus when people worship religion they are also ‘worshipping society’, religious symbols serve as a simplified representation of a more complex whole, reminded individuals that they are merely small and part of a much ‘bigger picture’.
- Religion acts as a constraining (conservative) force: through religious worship (ceremonies) the ‘collective conscience’ is imprinted on the individual: they literally ‘feel’ the weight of the community on them.
- Religion reinforces a sense of belonging and shared identity to society.
- Argued religion had more specific functions than Durkheim:
- Religion helps individuals to deal with the psychological stresses which occur in times of social change – such as births, marriage and deaths. Beliefs can help people ‘make sense’ of death for example and can act as a source of catharsis for the bereaved.
- Religious rituals also help society through the disruption to social order caused by life changing events such as death.
- Religion helps people deal with situations which they cannot predict or control – e.g. the Trobriand Islanders used religious ritual when fishing in the dangerous, unpredictable ocean, but not the calm lagoons.
- Unlike Durkheim does not see religion as reflecting society as a whole, nor does he see religious ritual as ‘worshipping society’.
- Saw the main function of religion as being the maintenance of social order.
- Religion promotes value consensus: many legal systems are based on religious morals for example.
- Like Malinowski Parsons saw religious beliefs and rituals as helping maintain social order in times of social change (such as death) and to help individuals make sense of unpredictable events.
- Religion can also help people make sense of contradictory events.
Criticisms of the Functionalist Perspective on Religion
- Religion does not always promote harmony: it can promote conflict: there may be conflicts within religion, or between religions for example.
- Ignores the role religion can play in promoting social change
- Secularisation means that religion performs fewer functions today: thus functionalism may be less relevant.