The uses and gratification model states that audiences are active users of media content and that they use the media to fulfill four main types of need.
People use media to escape from their daily routines.
In some cases media usage may make up for lack of satisfaction in work or personal life.
The media may compensate for the decline of community and meaningful, intimate relationships
For example soap characters may be seen as companions in the absence of family or friends.
People may use characters to they identify with to help them make decisions in life.
People use Facebook to express identities in ways they can control.
People use the media to obtain information about the world, primarily the news.
Criticisms of the uses and gratifications model of audience effects
- There is a lack of substantive research which supports this theory
- Marxists argue it exaggerates audiences’ capacity to interpret media content, ignoring the power of agenda setting.
- Postmodernists argue there are an even wider set of uses individuals make of media.