Globalisation and its consequences
- There are Economic, Cultural and Political elements of Globalisation
- Optimist view of Globalisation
- Pessimist view of Globalisation
- Does Globalisation mean the decline of the nation state?
The problems of defining and measuring development and underdevelopment
- How should we define and measure development?
- The strengths and limitations of Western notions and categories of development – 1st, 2nd and 3rd World, North-South Divide, World Bank economic indicators (High to Low Income Countries)
- The strengths and Limitations of using Economic indicators – mainly GNP/ GNI but also GDP, and HPI
- The strengths and limitations of using Social Indicators – HDI, MDGs and others…
Different theories of development, underdevelopment and global inequality
- Modernisation Theory – Internal cultural barriers to Development// Official Development Aid, Industrialisation, Capitalism
- Dependency Theory – Colonialism, Exploitation and Extraction by the West// Breaking Away/ Socialism
- World Systems Theory – Global Capitalist System – Core – Periphery –Semi-Periphery// Core Nations tend to remain dominant
- Neoliberalism – Too much aid breeds corruption// More Trade – Deregulation, Privatisation, Low Taxation
- People Centred Development – No Fixed path to development// Sustainability/ Democracy/ Justice
- Bottom Billion– Four Traps//Aid and Fairer Trade and Peace
Aid, debt and trade and their impact on development
- The strengths and Limitations of Official Development Aid
- The strengths and Limitations of Non-Governmental Organisation Aid
- The strengths and Limitations of Private Aid
- The strengths and Limitations of ‘Free Trade’
- Lots of complex stuff in the criticisms of the above – About Trade Rules! (Dumping/ Subsidies etc.)
- The strengths and Limitations of Fair Trade
- Also be ready for a question about ‘Debt’ and development
The role of transnational corporations, nongovernmental organisations and international agencies in local and global strategies for development. (This is done as part of the previous 4 topics!)
Development in relation to industrialisation and urbanisation
- Arguments for Industrialisation AND Urbanisation (Modernisation Theory)
- Arguments against Industrialisation (PCD/ Sustainable Development/ Dependency Theory
- Arguments against Urbanisation
- Slums (case studies!)
- Theories – Dependency Theory/ Global Pessimism
Work, employment, education and health as aspects of development
- How are they different in the developing world
- How does poor education etc. act as barriers to development
- How might improving them promote development?
- Why might western models not be appropriate to the developing world
- What are the limitations of each of these strategies in promoting development
- How important each of these development goals is compared to other development goals
- Relate all of this to theories of development
War and Conflict in relation to development
- The nature of conflict in the developing world (small scale civil wars, not big scale techno wars)
- Causes of conflict in the less developed world
- How conflict prevents development
- The role of the developed world in conflict
Gender and Development
- The extent of gender inequality and oppression of women in developing countries
- How might promoting gender equality lead to development?
- How might women be disadvantaged in the process of development?
- Why do global gender inequalities exist? Modernisation Theory/ Dependency Theory/ Radical Feminism
Population and Consumption in relation to development
- Intro – Higher Birth rates in the developing world and population growth.
- Malthusian Perspectives on the causes and consequences of population growth
- Paul Erlich’s Population Bomb (Neo-Malthusianism)
- Criticisms of Malthusianism (alternative perspectives on the causes and consequences of population growth)
- Science and Technology can feed more people
- Increasing wealth = decreasing birth rates (Hans Rosling ) Population Growth is due to decreasing death rates – demographic transition, an indicator of increasing wealth!)
- Dependency theory arguments – ‘Overpopulation’ is only a problem because of resource scarcity caused by the wests overconsumption (land grabs and bio fuels).
- Explanations of why birth rates are higher in developing countries
- Strategies for reducing birth rates in developing countries
- Both of the last two – contrast modernisation and dependency theories.
The Environment and Development
- Context – Development has been fundamentally linked to the burning of fossil fuels, industrialisation, urbanisation and high levels of consumption
- As a result we now face environmental problems (e.g. global warming, deforestation, pollution, toxic waste).
- These primarily affect developing countries and harm development (outline how!)
- Since the early 1990s – the concept of sustainable development has become big news – There are some limited International agreements – e.g. Kyoto Protocol/ MDG7.
- Limitations of sustainable development –
- Economic growth comes first, protecting the environment second
- No legally binding international agreements limiting the burning of fossil fuels
- Perspectives on what we should do about environmental problems
Global Development Revision Notes
If you like this sort of thing, then you might like my Global Development Revision Notes –
- Defining and measuring development
- Theories of development (Modernisation Theory etc)
- Aid, trade and development
- The role of organisations in development (TNCs etc)
- Industrialisation, urbanisation and development
- Employment, education and health as aspects of development
- Gender and development
- War, conflict and development
- Population growth and consumption
- The environment and sustainable development