An essay plan covering some of the knowledge and evaluation points you could use to answer this question for AQA A-level sociology paper two: the media option.
You might like to review this post on how women are represented in the media before going through the plan below.
The item refers to three main types of stereotypical representations
- A limited range of roles (Symbolic annihilation)
- Concern with appearance (The Beauty Myth)
- Women needing a partner
- Symbolic Annihilation (Tuchman, 1978) = under-representation/ narrow range of social roles, gender stereotypes – housework and motherhood
- ‘Mouse that Roared’ Henry Giroux – Disney Films – Snow White.
- Gauntlett – increase in the diversity of representations, reflects wider social changes.
- films with ‘strong’ lead female characters – e.g. Alien, Kill Bill, and The Hunger Games.
- However, lead female characters are slim and attractive
- The Bechdel Test.
- Global Media Monitoring group (2015) – women in news – the overall presence of women as sources was 28%. largely confined to the sphere of the private, emotional and subjective, while men still dominate the sphere of the public, rational and objective.
The Beauty Myth
- media present unrealistic and unattainable images of women which encourages women to worry unnecessarily about their looks (Naomi Wolfe).
- Tebbel (2000) body and faces of real women have been symbolically annihilated, replaced by computer manipulated, airbrushed, artificially images.
- Killborn – women presented as ‘mannequins’ – size zero, tall and thin, and with perfect blemish-free skin.
- Orbach – media associates slimness with health, happiness, success and popularity
- Recent evidence challenges Beauty Myth…. Backlash to 2015 Protein World’s ‘Beach Body Ready’ advertising campaign
- Since 2015 increase in the diversity of representations of women in advertising: Dove‘s Real Beauty‘ campaign72 , Sport England ‘ This Girl Can‘ campaign.
- 2017 – Advertising Standards Authority launched new guidelines on avoiding gender stereotyping in advertising, banned ads 2019.
- UN women’s Unstereotype Alliance‘.
Women needing a partner
- Ferguson (1980) – content analysis of women’s magazines from the end of WWII to 1980: cult of femininity: caring for others, family, marriage, and concern for appearance.
- Ferguson: teenage magazines aimed at girls offered broader range of female representations, but still a focus on him, home and looking good for him.
- However, McRobbie – Cosmopolitan has featured positive representations of young women as seeking to control their own lives rather than being dependent on men.