Monthly Archives: March 2017

From Pilgrim to Tourist – Or A Short History of Identity, Zygmunt Bauman

If the modern problem of identity was how to construct an identity, the postmodern problem of identity is how to avoid fixation and keep the options open. If the catchword of modernity was creation, the catchword of postmodernity is recycling. … Continue reading

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Outline and explain two reasons why trade does not always promote development (10)

One reason is that poorer countries tend to export low-value primary products such as agricultural goods, while richer countries export higher value goods. Frank (1971) argues this is a legacy of colonialism during which rich countries made their colonies specialize … Continue reading

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Modernisation Theory Applied to Gender Inequality

Modernisation Theory blames internal cultural factors for women’s subordination in the developing world. It is argued that some traditional cultures, and especially the religious ideas that underpin the values, norms, institutions and customs of the developing world, ascribe status on … Continue reading

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The Moral Panic About Boys ‘Underachievement’ in Education

Researchers in the Gender and Education Association take a critical feminist approach to the issue of boys’ underachievement.   They argue that boys’ underachievement has long been a feature of the UK education system, but it has recently become a … Continue reading

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Global Gender Inequalities – A Statistical Overview

Gender Inequalities in Employment For every dollar earned by men, women earn 70-90 cents. Women are less likely to work than men – Globally in 2015 about three quarters of men and half of women participate in the labour force. … Continue reading

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Five Reasons Women Don’t Get Promoted

Five reasons why women are less likely to get promoted than men include discrimination, caring responsibilities, lack of vertical networks, lack of self-confidence and ‘positive choice’ – at least according to Professor Tom Schuller in his recent book ‘The Paula … Continue reading

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Sociological Perspectives on Advertising

A brief summary of pages of 27-32 of Joel Stillerman’s ‘Sociology of Consumption’: The Effects of Advertising and Branding on Consumers (with comments!). The theories covered in this section include: The Manipulation Thesis (1) This originated with Adorno and Horkheimer’s … Continue reading

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Industrialisation and Development

What is Industrialisation? Industrialisation is where a country moves from an economy dominated by agricultural output and employment to one dominated by manufacturing. This will usually involve the establishment of factories in which things are produced in a rationally organized … Continue reading

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Neoliberalism and the Production of Subjectivity

This is a brief summary of Jason Read’s: A Genealogy of Homo-Economicus: Neoliberalism and the Production of Subjectivity (2009) Introduction Neoliberalism represents a fundamental shift in ideology – firstly, it is not generated from the state, but from the quotidian … Continue reading

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Are Downshifters Resisting Neoliberalism?

This is a summary of Verdow: The subject who thinks economically? Comparative money subjectivities in neoliberal context The findings below are based on a comparative study of the money values of 3 groups of Australian generation Xers -‘ordinary’ low and … Continue reading

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